A number of nonverbal pain behavior tools have been developed to identify pain in persons with dementia. Because tools vary on population focus, type of pain problem, setting of care, and characteristics evaluated, it is difficult to choose one tool that fits all cognitively impaired older adults.
The following group of tools includes those that have broad exposure beyond their country of origin and testing with a variety of cultures and settings and have the most extensive psychometric testing overall. They also have clinical utility based on time to train to use and to administer in the clinical setting.
- ABBEY (The Abbey Pain Scale): Summary
- CNPI (Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators): Summary | Tool
- Doloplus 2 (Doloplus-2 Scale, Behavioural Pain Assessment in the Elderly):Summary
- MOBID-2 (Mobilization Observation Behavior Intensity Dementia Pain Scale - 2): Summary | Tool
- PACSLAC (The Pain Assessment Scale for Seniors with Severe Dementia): Summary | Tool
- PACSLAC-II (The Pain Assessment Scale for Seniors with Severe Dementia - II ): Summary | Tool
- PAINAD (The Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia Scale): Summary | Tool
The second set of tools are others that have at least moderate reliability and validity, although variable across tools. Several have recommendations for refinement and further testing.
- Algoplus (Algoplus Scale): Summary
- CPAT (Certified Nurse Assistant Pain Assessment Tool): Summary | Tool
- Doloshort: Summary | Tool
- DS-DAT (Discomfort Scale-Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type): Summary | Tool
- EPCA-2 (Elderly Pain Caring Assessment): Summary | Tool
- MPS (Mahoney Pain Scale): Summary
- NOPPAIN (The Non-Communicating Patient's Pain Assessment Instrument): Summary | Tool
- PACI (Pain Assessment in the Cognitively Impaired): Summary | Tool
- PACSLAC-D (The Pain Assessment Scale for Seniors with Severe Dementia - Dutch version): Summary
- PADE (Pain Assessment for the Dementing Elderly): Summary
- PAINE (Pain Assessment in Noncommunicative Elderly Persons): Summary
- REPOS (Rotterdam Elderly Pain Observation Scale): Summary
Two tools focus on synthesizing from existing behavior indicators in other tools and literature to identify a subset that may be most specific in identifying pain and/or determining its severity. These include the following