Clinical Practice Guidelines
This 2009 paper by the American Pain Society was published in the Journal of Pain and provides a thorough overview of practice guidelines for caring for people requiring ongoing opioid therapy. It is not specific to older adults but is useful as a general guide that gives more detail to supplement the American Geriatric Society guidelines listed above.
This 2011 article was presented by the American Society of Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN) and published in Pain Management Nursing. In the article, the authors present clinical practice recommendations for pain assessment in the nonverbal patient, both those with dementia and those with other disorders resulting in being nonverbal.
This 2012 document provides recommendations related to the use of opioids for the treatment of pain in people with addictive diseases, including definitions of relevant terms.